Nuclear Controversy in Finland

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Facts about Finland

provided by an exhibition presented at the international anti-nuclear conference in Vienna on May 31, 2013

Independent Republic since 1917
Member State of the European Union since 1995

  • Capital: Helsinki
  • Neighbouring countries: Estonia, Norway, Russia and Sweden
  • Area: 338 000 km²
  • Population: 5.28 million
  • Population density: 15.5 persons per km²
  • GDP per capita at market prices (2006): EUR 31 886
  • Monetary unit: euro (EUR)
  • Total primary energy consumption (2006): 32.6 Mtoe
  • Total electricity consumption (2006): 90.0 TWh
  • Electricity consumption per capita: 17 054 kWh
  • Share of nuclear energy in Finland (2006):
    • 24.4 % of total electricity consumption
    • 28.0 % of domestic electricity production


Source of next section: lecture of Tapio Litmanen, University of Jyväskylä [1]

2008 energy production in Finland:

  • Oil (25 %)
  • Wood fuels (21 %)
  • Nuclear energy (17 %)
  • Natural gas (11 %)
  • Coal (10 %)
  • Peat (6 %)
  • Hydro power (4 %)
  • Net imports of electricity (3 %)
  • Other (3 %)

Source: Yearbook of Energy Statistics 2009. Statistics Finland

2012/2011 energy production in Finland:

  • Oil (24 %/24 %)
  • Wood fuels (23 %/23 %)
  • Nuclear energy (18 %/9 %)
  • Natural gas (8 %/9 %)
  • Coal (10 %/11 %)
  • Peat (5 %/6 %)
  • Hydro power (4 %/3 %)
  • Other (3 %/3 %)

Source: Official Statistics of Finland (OSF): Energy supply and consumption

2000-2011 electricity production in Finland:

  • Nuclear power (32 %)
  • Hydro power (17 %)
  • Wind power (1 %)
  • Black liquor (7 %)
  • Other wood fuels (7 %)
  • Other renewables (1 %)
  • Peat (7 %)
  • Oil (1 %)
  • Natural gas (13 %)
  • Other fossil fuels (1) %
  • Hard coal (13 %)
  • Other energy sources (1 %)

Electricity production 70.4 Twh

Source: Official Statistics of Finland (OSF): Production of electricity and heat

2012 Electricity consumption in Finland:

  • Households and agriculture (28 %)
  • Services and public consumption (22 %)
  • Industry and construction: 47 %
    • Forest industries (24 %)
    • Metal industry (10 %)
    • Chemical industry (8)
    • Other industries (5 %)
  • Losses (3 %)

Source: Official Statistics of Finland (OSF): Energy supply and consumption


Atomic Policy in Finland

For many years Finland was internationally regarded as the country of the so-called "nuclear renaissance" (a worldwide increasing number of new reactor projects was utilized by the atomic lobby to pretend this industry to have a prospering future). The very first EU reactor design after the Chernobyl catastrophe, the European Pressurized Water Reactor EPR, developed by the French Framatome (these days Areva) and the German Siemens company, was to be constructed as a prototype in Olkiluoto in Finland. At the same time a site for final disposal of high level radioactive waste was started (not in operation yet) there, called Onkalo. Pro-nuclear media and lobby claimed Finnish people to be supporting the atomic plans, and for a long time it was impossible to correct this media image.

-> learn more


Climate Policy

Source of next section: lecture of Tapio Litmanen, University of Jyväskylä [2]

  • One of the world leaders in utilising bioenergy
  • RES TARGETS
    • Mandatory targets set by EU's Directive on the Promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources
  • 38% share of RES on the final consumption of energy in 2020
  • At least 10% share of renewable energy in final consumption of energy in transport by 2020

Poor performance in reducing CO2 emissions:
(N. Valkila, A. Saari / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 17 (2013) 283–290)

  • Finland's per capita emissions of carbon dioxide are fairly high
  • In 2003–2005 the average annual emissions were 12.7 t of CO² per capita
    • as against the 9.0 t of CO² per capita for all the EU-25 countries
  • Poor performance is explained by
    • Geography: a northern European climate
    • Population density: sparsely populated (17 inhabitants per sq. km)
    • Structure of industry: energy intensive


Time line

provided by an exhibition presented at the international anti-nuclear conference in Vienna on May 31, 2013

  • 1970 - preliminary preparations fpr nuclear waste management during the construction of the Finnish NPPs
  • 1977-1978 - operation of first reactors started in Loviisa and Olkiluoto
  • 1978 - interim storage of spent nuclear fuel started in Loviisa
  • 1983 - the Finnish Government set the overall schedule on the Finnish nuclear waste management programme
  • 1983 - screening of potential sites for final disposal of spent fuel started
  • 1987 - field research started in five municipalities for selection of the final disposal site
  • 1987 - interim storage of spent nuclear fuel started in Olkiluoto
  • 1988 - construction of low and intermediate level waste repository started in Olkiluoto
  • 1992 - final disposal of low and intermediate level waste started in Olkiluoto
  • 1992 - detailed site characterisation for final disposal of spent fuel started in the municipalities of Eurajoki, Kuhmo and Äänekoski
  • 1993 - construction of low level and intermediate level waste repository started in Loviisa
  • 1994 - the Finnish Parliament banned the import and export of nuclear waste
  • 1995 - Posiva Oy was established to manage the final disposal of spent fuel
  • 1997 - Loviisa was selected as the fourth potential site for final disposal of spent nuclear fuel
  • 1998 - final disposal of low and intermediate level waste started in Loviisa
  • 2000 - Olkiluoto was selected as the site for final disposal of spent nuclear fuel
  • 2003 - the municipality of Eurajoki issued a building permit for the underground characterisation facility Onkalo
  • 2004-2009 - ground-level service and monitoring buildings for Onkalo under construction; excavation of the access tunnel to reach a depth of 420 meters


Future nuclear activity in Finland


Reactors

  • Olkiluoto 3 building going on at the moment, 4th reactor proposed - see also: Olkiluoto NPP
    • operational reactors: Olkiluoto I + II
    • operator: TVO
  • Loviisa 3rd reactor proposed
    • operational reactors: Loviisa I + II
    • operator: Fortum
  • Fennovoima project - Possible locations: Ruotsinpyhtää, Simo, Pyhäjoki. Application in process.

Final disposal sites

  • ONKALO in Olkiluoto - construction started in 2004

Uranium mining projects

  • Enontekiö
  • Joensuu - Kontiolahti
  • Kärsämäki
  • Kittilä
  • Kuhmo
  • Kuusamo
  • Paltamo
  • Ranua
  • Rovaniemi
  • Tervola
  • Ylitornio

Uranium production

Uranium prospecting sites[3] [4] (another list):

and:

Kartta nuclear activity finland small.jpg


Government working group: Nuclear waste final repository maybe not big enough

Bike action at the Baltic Sea Info Tour in Mariehamn
Chernobyl Day action of Women Against Nuclear Power in Helsinki, Parliament
Article about the attack against the Fennovoima office in Lapland in anti atom aktuell #203
Ranua: Anti-uranium rally and event
Street theatre of nuclear monsters in front of the NPP Loviisa at 2008 NUCLEAR weekEND
Nuclear Climate Camp: Performance in front of the City Hall
Excursion To A Proposed Uranium Mining Area
Areva test drilling in Ranua/Finland
Part of the residence of the Anti Nuclear Festival

What does this piece of news mean? - It means that someone has bothered to make a press release about the unfinished estimations and investigations of a government committee. It means someone has deliberately chosen the headline with the purpose of saying,

  1. "we'll have to discuss creating more final repositories"
  2. "we'll continue to create more nuclear waste that has to be stored somewhere"

What we also learn is that the plan with Onkalo was never to store all the waste of Olkiluoto, or any other NPP - because, only when they get around to making the tunnels will they know how much space there will be. In other words, Onkalo is just the beginning.

What's also interesting is that the actual purpose of the committee in question is to investigate whether Fennovoima's waste could also fit into Onkalo, not whether the waste of the owners of Onkalo/Posiva could fit.

Thus, alternatively, what this piece of news means is that: because of market competition, any nuclear power company in the same position (commissioning the building of a final repository) would have to do the same thing, i.e.: make public statement / "report" (or say to government committee if/when they make report) saying that "no-one else's waste will fit in, because maybe there won't be space enough for all of our own waste!" If they don't, they are limiting their future perspectives of growth, and "giving in" to their competitors.

Of course, what this piece of news also means is that: At the moment, the climate in the (finnish) public debate is such, that someone can freely do this kind of public media lobbying ("meta-politics"/"meta-market-competition") without anyone caring, commenting, or protesting.


Työryhmä: Ydinjätteen loppusijoitustila ei ehkä riitä
Ydinjätteiden loppusijoitustila ei välttämättä riitä Fortumin ja
Teollisuuden Voiman jätteille, arvioi työ- ja elinkeinoministeriön
työryhmä. Vasta tunnelien louhintavaiheessa selviää, kuinka paljon
kalliolohkoon mahtuu käytettyä ydinpolttoainetta.

Työryhmä selvittää mahdollisuuksia sijoittaa Olkiluotoon myös
Fennovoiman ydinjäte. Onkalon omistaa Posiva, jonka takana ovat
Fortum ja Teollisuuden Voima.
STT

source: http://www.kaleva.fi/uutiset/talous/tyoryhma-ydinjatteen-loppusijoitustila-ei-ehka-riita/597810/


Other Materials


Anti-nuclear groups and organizations in Finland

  1. Anti-nuclear action Blog Toimintaryhmä
  2. pro Hanhiviki (against proposed Pyhäjoki NPP)
  3. Lappi movement against uranium power
  4. Movement against uranium mining in Northern Carelia
  5. Northern Finland Network against nuclear power and uranium mining and for renewable energy
  6. Stop Fennovoima
  7. TURVA - Action network against uranium industry

Other groups connected to anti-nuclear issues

  1. Hyökyaalto network (Rising Tide Finland)
  2. Luonto-Liitto ry
    • Annankatu 26 A, 5. kerros, FIN-00100 Helsinki
  3. SLL - Finnish Association for Nature Conservation
  4. Takku - anarchist news site

Anti-nuclear website projects

Some past activities

2016


2015


2014


2013


2012


2010

  • Baltic Sea Info Tour in Summer 2010
    • preparation meeting for the infotour stop in Olkiluoto on April 29th, 2010 in Rauma
    • preparation meeting for the infotour stop in Helsinki on May 17th, 2010 in Helsinki
    • preparation meeting for the infotour stop in Oulu on May 3rd, 2010 at Valve Cafe in Oulu
    • June 23rd-25th: stop in Ǻland - 3 days of action, information events and network meeting; topics: nuclear waste issues (start of the Baltic Sea Info Tour)
    • June 26th-28th: stop in Isnäs - 3 days of action, information events and network meeting; topics: everything connected with nuclear power in Finland
    • June 30th-July 2nd: stop in Helsinki - 3 days of action, information events and network meeting; topics: NPP, LMAW, proposed new NPP
    • August 14th-16th: stop in Rauma - 3 days of action, information events and network meeting; topics: proposed uranium mining, proposed NPP
    • August 18th-20th: stop in Oulu - 3 days of action, information events and network meeting; topics: proposed uranium mining, proposed NPP
    • August 21st: evaluation of the Baltic Sea Info Tour in Oulu (end of the Baltic Sea Info Tour)
  • Lecture about Nuclear Waste Disposal Disaster in Germany in the visitor center of the Parliament of Finland in Helsinki on June 16th, 2010 at 12 pm
    • This lecture gives an overview about the disposal of nuclear waste in Germany, the four more or less "official" final repositories for radioactive materials and about basic challenges of the final disposal of longterm radioactive waste. It takes some 60 minutes including a little bit of time to ask questions and to have some discussions.
    • Press release: Finnish | English
  • IRPA congress in Helsinki - conference of the (mainly) pro-nuclear scientists, authorities and companies to celebrate the alleged "radiation protection" of their institutions on June 14-18, 2010
    • do something about it!
  • Lecture about Nuclear Waste Disposal Disaster in Germany in Turku on May 10th, 2010 at 2 pm in the University of Turku, Main Building, Lecture Hall I organized by TYY Committee on Environmental Issues and Uusi Tuuli Ry
    • This lecture gives an overview about the disposal of nuclear waste in Germany, the four more or less "official" final repositories for radioactive materials and about basic challenges of the final disposal of longterm radioactive waste. It takes some 60 minutes including a little bit of time to ask questions and to have some discussions.
    • Afterwards the film "The 10th Castor Transport to Gorleben" about the anti-nuclear resistance in Germany will be shown (some 40 minutes)
  • Demonstration against new NPPs in Finland in Helsinki: May 8th, 2010
  • Lecture about Nuclear Waste Disposal Disaster in Germany in Tampere on May 5th, 2010 at 4 pm in the university in cooperation with the environmental section of the Student Union (Tampereen yliopiston ylioppilaskunnan ympäristöjaosto)
    • This lecture gives an overview about the disposal of nuclear waste in Germany, the four more or less "official" final repositories for radioactive materials and about basic challenges of the final disposal of longterm radioactive waste. It takes some 60 minutes including a little bit of time to ask questions and to have some discussions. The presentation can be offered also in German.
  • Lecture about Nuclear Waste Disposal Disaster in Germany in Rovaniumi on May 4th, 2010 at 2 pm in the university
    • This lecture gives an overview about the disposal of nuclear waste in Germany, the four more or less "official" final repositories for radioactive materials and about basic challenges of the final disposal of longterm radioactive waste. It takes some 60 minutes including a little bit of time to ask questions and to have some discussions. The presentation can be offered also in German.
  • Speech of scientist Albrecht Körblein from Germany in Mariehamn on May 1st, 2010
  • Lecture of scientist Albrecht Körblein from Germany in Helsinki on April 30th, 2010 at 11 am
  • Lecture of scientist Albrecht Körblein from Germany in Jyväskylä on April 29th, 2010
  • Lecture of scientist Albrecht Körblein from Germany in Oulu on April 27th, 2010
  • Lecture of scientist Albrecht Körblein from Germany in Rovaniemi on April 26th, 2010
  • Lecture of scientist Albrecht Körblein from Germany in Tervola on April 25th, 2010
  • Chernobyl Day demonstration in Kemi on April 24th, 2010
  • presentation "Nuclear Waste Disposal Disaster in Germany" on April 20th, 2010 at 7 pm in Ǻland
    • at the Ǻland Natur och Miljös office, Norragatan 13 - organized by Aktionsgruppen för ett atomkraftsfritt Ǻland
  • International Anti-nuclear Network Meeting from March 25th-29th, 2010 in Helsinki
  • Uranium Info Tour with expert Prof. Gordon Edwards (Canada) in Finland on January 8th-18th, 2010


2009

  • Support gig for Ranua Rescue in Tampere on November 19th, 2009
    • We will show a film for the start of the evening. Afterwords there will be music and slide-show during and/or between the bands.
    • Local bands: Sulkava (Timo Blues style), Jyri Pitkänen and Teemu -> it will be kind of folkish or pop music
  • Gathering for anti-uranium activists in Kajaani on November 14th-15th, 2009
  • Support evening for the Ranua Rescue project on November 13th, 2009 in Helsinki
    • the festival will be postboned because of the participating bands; instead several workshops will be given and films will be shown
  • Rally against Uranium and Independent Expert Hearing in Ranua against uranium mining on November 7th, 2009
  • Press conference about the Ranua Rescue Action Camp on September 21th, 2009 in Ranua
  • Movie night ("Area 32") about uranium mining on September 21st, 2009 at 6 pm in Ranua
  • Ranua Uranium Exploration Action - August 13th, 2009
  • Fennovoima office in Simo attacked - July 24, 2009
  • Nuclear Climate Camp in Lapland - July 20-26, 2009
  • 26. 5. 2009: Tshernobyl-day - several happenings in Helsinki
  • Demostration against Nuclear industry plans in Northearn Finland - Oulu 24.1.2009

for information and flyer: http://www.ydinverkosto.net click 'Materiaalia' in 'Viestintä' section.


2008


Additional resources


  1. http://www.nuclear-heritage.net/images/7/70/Case_Pyhajoki_presentation_Finnish_Exceptionalism.pdf as at August 8, 2013
  2. http://www.nuclear-heritage.net/images/7/70/Case_Pyhajoki_presentation_Finnish_Exceptionalism.pdf as at August 8, 2013
  3. http://www.tem.fi/index.phtml?s=2112
  4. http://uraanivoima.com/
  5. For protection against automatical email address robots searching for addresses to send spam to them this email address has been made unreadable for them. To get a correct mail address you have to displace "AT" by the @-symbol.

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